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DISPLACED PERSONS IX CYPRUS
COMMITTEE OX THE JUDICIARY
HOUSE OP REPRESENTATIVES
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON : 1976
COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY
PETER W. RODINO, Jr.
JACK BROOKS, Texas
ROBERT W. KASTENMEIER, Wisconsin
DON EDWARDS, California
WILLIAM L. HUNGATE, Missouri
JOHN CONYERS, Jr., Michigan
JOSHUA EILBERG, Pennsylvania
WALTER FLOWERS, Alabama
JAMES R. MANN, South Carolina
PAUL S. SARBANES, Maryland
JOHN F. SEIBERLING, Ohio
GEORGE E. DANIELSON, California
ROBERT F. DRINAN, Massachusetts
BARBARA JORDAN, Texas
ELIZABETH HOLTZMAN, New York
EDWARD MEZVINSKY, Iowa
HERMAN BADILLO, New York
ROMANO L. MAZZOLI, Kentucky
EDWARD W. PATTISON, New York
CHRISTOPHER J. DODD, Connecticut
WILLIAM J. HUGHES, New Jersey
SAM B. HALL, Jr., Texas
, New Jersey, Chairman
EDWARD HUTCHINSON, Michigan
ROBERT McCLORY, Illinois
TOM RAILSBACK, Illinois
CHARLES E. WIGGINS, California
HAMILTON FISH, Jr., New York
M. CALDWELL BUTLER, Virginia
WILLIAM S. COHEN, Maine
CARLOS J. MOORHEAD, California
JOHN M. ASIIBROOK, Ohio
HENRY J. HYDE, Illinois
THOMAS N. KINDNESS, Ohio
Earl C. Dudley, Jr., General Counsel
Garner J. Cline, Staff Director
Herbert Fdchs, Counsel
William P. Shattuck, Counsel
Alan A. Parker, Counsel
Maurice A. Barboza, Counsel
Thomas W. Hutchison, Counsel
Arthur P. Endres, Jr., Counsel
Daniel L. Cohen, Counsel
Franklin G. Polk, Counsel
Thomas E. Mooney, Counsd
Alexander B. Cook, Counsel
Alan F. Coffey, Jr., Counsel
Ki:.\m:iii N. Ki.i:i:. Counsel
Raymond V. Smietanka, Counsel
Thomas M. BOTD, Counsel
In my role as Chairman of the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citi-
zenship, and International Law, which has general jurisdiction over
refugee matters, I have been deeply concerned over the tragic conse-
quences of the hostilities which occurred in Cyprus in the summer of
Serious humanitarian problems resulted from that conflict and it is
apparent that they will not be fully resolved until a just and peaceful
solution to the Cyprus issue is reached.
More specifically, the plight of some 200.000 persons displaced by
military hostilities has not been satisfactorily resolved and little prog-
ress can be expected until there are "good faith" negotiations regard-
ing the issues of territorial readjustment, resettlement and sovereignty.
Because of my concern, and in order to discharge the oversight re-
sponsibilities of my subcommittee with regard to refugee problems,
I travelled to Cyprus on May 12, 1976, after participating in the delib-
erations of the Executive Committee meeting of the Intergovernmental
Committee for European Migration (ICEM) in Geneva, Switzerland.
My visit was followed one week later by that of the Honorable
Robert McClory, who spent several days reviewing all aspects of the
Cyprus problem. Representative McClory's valuable report, which
gives a keen insight into this complex problem, is set forth in its en-
tirety in this committee print.
In addition, at my direction, the subcommittee staff made an investi-
gative trip to Cyprus in November of last year in order to obtain a
first-hand view of the situation.
During each of these study trips, there were extensive meetings and
discussions with: William B. Crawford, U.S. Ambassador to Cyprus
and other U.S. Embassy officials ; representatives of the U.N. High
Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) ; representatives of the United
Nation's Forces in Cyprus (UNFICYP) ; officials of the Interna-
tional Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) ; and officials of both the
Government of Cyprus and the Turkish authorities.
In particular, I had the opportunity of meeting with the following
individuals during my brief visit : Mr. K. Lyonette, Acting Chief of
Mission, UNHCR; Archbishop Makarios, President of Cyprus, the
Israeli Ambassador to Cyprus as well as the U.S. Ambassador and
A detailed listing of the meetings held by, and activities of, Repre-
sentative McClory can be found later in his report.
The subcommittee staff met with the following individuals during
their earlier visit: Roman Kohaut, UNHCR. Chief of Mission: R.
Hoffman, ICRC, Chief of Mission, and Alain Lenartz, Deputy Chief;
Osman Orek, Minister of Defense, Government of Cyprus (Vice-
President and Minister of Defense of the Turkish Authorities) ;
George Pelaghias, Director General, Ministry of Foreign Affairs: and
Achillcas Kallimachos, Acting Director, Special Services for the Care
and Rehabilitation of Refugees. Ministry of Labor, Government of
Cyprus; and Petros Paris, Camp Director, Nicosia Stavros Refugee
In addition to these formal meetings and discussions. Representa-
tive McClory and I. as well as my staff, observed and inspected various
refugee camps, housing projects and villages which were either aban-
doned or destroyed during the hostilities. We also took this oppor-
tunity to speak with many persons who resided in the temporary "tent
camps' 3 which were established. During the trips, interviews were con-
ducted with public officials and private citizens in both the Turkish-
occupied and government-controlled areas.
It is my hope that this report, based on our field investigation of
this difficult problem, will be of value to the Members of the Judiciary
Committee and will assist them in the exercise of their legislative re-
sponsibilities regarding this subject.
Chairman, Subcommittee on Immigration.
Oitii ' . and Intt i national L
I. Background information 3
II. International relief efforts 5
A. United Nations Peacekeeping Force on Cyprus (UNFICYP) 5
B. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) 5
C. International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) 7
D. Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration (ICEM)__ 7
III. Relief efforts — Government of Cyprus 8
IV. U.S. relief efforts 9
V. Problem areas :
A. UNHCR's role in Cyprus 11
B. Greek Cypriots in Turkish-controlled area 11
C. Colonization and Turkish troops 12
VI. Report of Hon. Robert McClory, M.C 13
Digitized by the Internet Archive
The July 1974 conflict in Cyprus had a devastating impact on the
people and economy of that country. It produced massive population
shifts and resulted in a "de facto" partitioning of the country, with
a Turkish-occupied area in the North comprising 40 percent of the
land area of the entire island.
Thousands of families were uprooted by the hostilities and almost
one-half of the total population intially required some form of relief
assistance. Those in need included: Greek Cypriots displaced to the
South ; Greek Cypriots remaining in the North ; and Turkish Cypriots
remaining in the South and to a much lesser degree Turkish Cypriots
displaced to the North. The primary concerns of these displaced and
needy persons at that time were to obtain adequate food, shelter, medi-
cines, and other necessities of life.
The international community and the United States immediately
responded to these needs and the International Committee of the Red
Cross became operative in Cyprus in August 1974 to provide relief
assistance and to protect the civilian population.
This report will focus on these human consequences of the Cyprus
crisis, and will briefly discuss some of the social, political, and economic
problems stemming from the 1974 hostilities in that country.
It will also assess the changing needs of the Cypriots with the pas-
sage of time and examine the programs of humanitarian assistance
which have been established for the Cypriot refugees.
(1) ' .
The sequence of events which led to the current situation in Cyprus
is well known and consequently will not be recited in detail in this
Suffice it to say that the coup d'etat by the Greek National Guard
and the subsequent Turkish military intervention had a devastating
effect on the lives of the Cypriot people and on the economy of that
Since July 1974, the Turkish authorities have occupied and main-
tained control over the northern portion of the island, with the asssist-
ance of Turkish military forces, ranging from a maximum of 40,000
to approximately 28,000 today.
As a result of the Turkish invasion, a substantial percentage of
Greek Oypriots living in the North, particularly in the Kyrenia area,
were displaced from their homes and fled or were transported to gov-
ernment-controlled areas in the South. 'While most were able to find
refuse in the homes of relatives and friends, many thousands were
unable to locate suitable shelter, as of November 1975. the number of
people residing in temporary tent camps was about 17,800. In fact it
was estimated that initially there were approximately 200.000 Cypriots
who were in need of food, shelter, medicine and other essentials of life.
It became clear that the Government of Cyprus was unable to provide
the necessary assistance.
The flow of displaced and needy persons (Greek Cypriots to the
government-controlled area in the South and Turkish Cypriots to
the Turkish-occupied area in the North) continued at a high level for
many months and at the time of the subcommittee staff's visit in
November 1975 the estimated refugee breakdown was as follows:
Greek Cypriots :
Persons displaced in the south 183. 100
Of which receiving assistance 139, 600
Persons not displaced but needy in south 14. 300
Persons in the north receiving assistance 10, 100
By Housing :
Living in tents 17. 800
Living in shacks 7,700
Turkish Cypriots receiving assistance in the south 42
Turkish Cypriots receiving assistance in the north 40,100
Despite resource limitations, the Government of Cyprus undertook
immediate relief efforts and did a commendable job in providing food
supplies, temporary housing, water and medical facilities. It soon be-
came apparent, however, that international assistance on a large scale
would be required. Consequently, shortly after the invasion, the U.N.
peace-keeping force (UNFICYP) and the International Committee
of the Rod Cross (TCRC) joined in the effort to respond to the hu-
manitarian needs of the Cypriot people.
One month later, on August 20, the U.X. High Commissioner for
Refugee (UNHCR), in response to appeals by the Government of
Cyprus, was designated by U.X. Secretary General Kurt Waldheim
to' coordinate U.X. humanitarian assistance for Cyprus.
In addition to the human tragedy on Cyprus, the turmoil and the
"de facto" partition of the island caused severe economic problems for
both the Greek and Turkish-Cypriot communities. While the Turkish
authorities gained control of 40 percent of the territory, the Turkish-
Cypriots comprised only 18 percent of the islands population of 650.-
000 at the time of the invasion. As a result, there was an acuate short-
age of manpower in the Turkish-controlled area. There were few who
could successfully operate the factories, manage the hotels, or culti-
vate and harvest the crops in the Xorth. The effect on tourism and
agricultural production was therefore substantial.
The government-controlled area, on the other hand, consisted of
many acres of underdeveloped land, as well as rugged and mountain-
ous terrain. As such it was not as economically productive as the land
in the Northern portion of the Island. Because of the inability to
absorb the vast influx of displaced Greek Cypriots from the Xorth,
severe unemployment resulted and many departed from the Island
in search of temporary employment. There was also a serious short-
age of produce and dairy products in the South which made it difficult
to provide adequate food supplies for the Greek Cypriot refugee
This critical economic situation continues. However, the importa-
tion of workers from mainland Turkey (a subject which will be dis-
cussed later in this report) and various reforestation projects in the
Xorth as well as increased cultivation and industrial projects in the
South, have somewhat alleviated the economic difficulties in both
Further, housing was not a significant problem in the Turkish zone,
since the Turkish Cypriots were able to occupy the homes of the Greek
Cvpriots who fled to the South. On the other hand, the provision of
adequate shelter for the homeless Greek Cypriots in the South became
an extremely serious problem due to the larger numbers involve*! and
the official and personal reluctance to occupy those homes which had
h^en abandoned by the Turkish Cypriots. There were several possible
rontons r or this initial reluctance: (1) fear of retribution in the event
of n Turkish takeover of the Tsland: (2> occupation of Turkish
Cypriot homes could be interpreted as an official recognition that nar-
+ition was inevitable or as an indication that ethnic Greeks would not
turning to their homes in the Xorth: and (3) because of the sub-
standard condition of many of these abandoned residences the Greek
^Vnriots in temporary refnge camps preferred to await the construc-
tion of new permanent housing.
The eeonomie nnd human consequences of the Cyprus conflict have
been a continuing concern of the ntemational eomnrnnity and concern
particular of the United States Government. The remainder of
this report, will detail the relief efforts which were mounted to respond
to this trarrdv and will discuss the progress which has been made in
ameliorating the plight of the Cypriot people.
International Relief Efforts
a. united nations peacekeeping force on cyprus (unficyp)
In 1964 the UN Security Council created UNFICYP to act as a
peacekeeping force in Cyprus and to maintain a climate which would
be conducive to establishing a lasting peace in that country.
In order to maintain UNFICYP, approximately $27 million is
required annually and the U.S. contribution to these forces has been
Following the July 1974 conflict in Cyprus, UN Secretary General
Waldheim appealed for increased contributions to UNFICYP which
was required to expand the size of the force in order to respond to the
situation. At the time of staff's trip to Cyprus in November 1975,
there were approximately 3,000 persons serving UNFICYP composed
of troops from Australia, Canada, Denmark, Finland, Ireland,
Sweden, and the United Kingdom. The U.S. contribution to
UNFICYP in fiscal year 1975 was $9.6 million. In addition to its
routine activities of maintaining peace and insuring the security of
the civilian population on Cyprus, UNFICYP also delivered food
and relief commodities to the Turkish and Greek Cypriots and assisted
both the UNHCE and ICRC in providing various forms of humani-
tarian relief assistance (i.e. evacuating the sick, pregnant and aged, in
both zones; providing medical evacuation services). In addition,
UNFICYP currently patrols a neutral area or buffer zone commonly
called the "green line" between the Turkish-occupied and government-
controlled sections of the Island.
B. UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES (UNHCR)
As noted previously in this report, UN Secretary General Waldheim
requested^ the UNHCR on August 20 to assume responsibility for
coordinating UN humanitarian assistance in Cyprus. On August 22
the UNHCR traveled to Cyprus to assess the situation and issued an
appeal on September 6 to the international community for contribu-
tions. At that time it was estimated that approximately $22 million
would be required to provide the necessary assistance for the remain-
der of calendar year 1974. The financial contributions provided by
more than 40 governments in response to that appeal (both in cash
and in kind) amounted to approximately $24.5 million, of which the
U.S. donated $7.8 million. These funds were used to provide the fol-
lowing-types of relief assistance: emergency accommodations, food
supplies; transportation; domestic and community equipment; and
program support and contingency reserve.
A second appeal was issued in January 1975 for $9.3 million for
food and medical supplies, and other relief programs in both the
Turkish-occupied area and the government-controlled area. The period
covered by this appeal was January to April 1975. Once again the
United States contributed one-third to the total amount requested in
the appeal — $3.1 million.
It should be noted that the FXHCR is not functioning in its tradi-
tional role in Cyprus since relief assistance is being provided to "dis-
placed persons" rather than "refugees'- as defined in the UNHCR
mandate. Nevertheless, at the personal request of the TJX Secretary
General, this mandate was expanded in order to respond to the crisis,
and all concerned parties on Cyprus have on several occasions re-
quested the UNHCR to maintain a presence on the island beyond the
original termination date. Another important distinction is* the fact
that the UNHCR's activities now include economic development
rather than emergency, short-term relief and rehabilitation assistance.
As a result, the UNHCR's role on Cyprus has been reassessed on
several occasions. Nevertheless the U.N. Secretary General has agreed
that the UNHCR should continue to channel international assistance
in Cyprus for the time being because of the requests which have been
made repeatedly by all interested parties.
Discussions with UNHCR officials, revealed that some international
organization would be required to provide continuing assistance in
Cyprus but questions were raised as to whether the UNHCR should
be involved in providing long-term economic and developmental
According to UNHCR officials, funds are distributed based on the
following criteria: (1) the number of those in need; and (2) the
nature and extent of their needs. In other words, allocations are not
made solely on the basis of the refugee population or population
ratios, but rather on the basis of a flexible distribution formula. Ex-
penditures are authorized only after agreement is reached with both
the Turkish authorities and the Government of Cyprus. In summary,
both the UNHCR and the ICRC operate in a non-politiral fashion
and attempt to provide relief on the basis of "need" rather than allo-
cating such an aid according to a predetermined ratio of the Turkish
Cypriot and Greek population.
During a meeting with Roman Kohaut, UNHCR Chief of Mission,
the following categories of relief recipients were described: 1) dis-
placed persons; 2) persons not displaced but in need; and 3) those
residing in the north.
One of the issues that has been actively discussed is whether relief
nssistance should also be provided to those persons who were displaced
or disadvantaged by events which occurred in Cyprus in 1963 and 1001.
The Turkish authorities have consistently maintained that such indi-
viduals should also be eligible for aid on the grounds that it is illogi-
cal to restrict assistance solely to those who were affected by the 1974
hostilities. Despite this constant criticisms, the Turkish authorities
have acquiesced ill the manner in which relief funds have been allo-
cated to the Turkish and Greek Cypriot communities on the basis of
displacements resulting from the 1971 hostilities.
The future role of the (JNHCB in Cyprus is now in question, but
there is little likelihood thai then will Be a long-term presence of the
T'XHCR in Cyprus because the UNTICR's normal function is to re-
spond to emergency situations. Some have questioned the propriety of
ihf^ UNTICR's current operation in Cyprus and have argued for a
phasing-out of its activities. Nevertheless, all are agreed that some
organization should continue to channel humanitarian assistance
from the international community and there is ample justification for
continuing to "internationalize" such assistance to both the Greek
Cypriots and the Turkish Cypriots
C. INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS (ICRC)
The primary concerns of the ICRC in Cyprus have been : treatment
of detainees; protection of civilians; tracing missing persons; and
other humanitarian matters such as providing food, shelter, and medi-
The ICRC was the first international organization to respond to
the humanitarian problems in Cyprus and despite the later designa-
tion of the UXHCR as the prime coordinator of UN relief activities,
the ICRC continued to provide food and medical supplies in order to
supplement the UXHCR's relief program.
Over the last year ICRC has attempted to phase out its initial
relief activities and at the beginning of this year it was only handling
humanitarian cases rather than operating general relief programs. In
fact, at the time of the staff's visit, ICRC was no longer an operational
organization but was essentially providing "moral security" to the
international relief programs which had been established. It was indi-
cated that ICRC would continue to consider some of the problems con-
fronting Greek Cypriots who remained in the north such as the avail-
ability of education and medical services. According to ICRC
officials, no problems were encountered in obtaining suitable access to
the Greek Cypriots in the north, and this position was also shared by
the UNHCR officials who were interviewed.
As mentioned earlier, one of the primary responsibilities of ICRC
shortly after the conflict was attempting to locate missing persons. The
total number of persons who have not been located as a result of the
conflict ranges between 1500 and 2000 and this represents one of the
most tragic aspects of the 1974 hostilities. According to ICRC all leads
in these cases have been exhausted. Likewise no precise statistics are
available concerning the number of persons who died during the 1974
conflict, but one official of the Government of Cyprus estimated the
number to be about 5,000.
It is indeed disturbing that more accurate data could not have been
obtained on the dead and missing; but ICRC officials indicated that
the chaos and confusion which followed the Turkish invasion of the
island impeded the efforts of ICRC's Tracing Agency in securing
D. INTERGOVERNMENTAL COMMITTEE FOR EUROPEAN MIGRATION (ICEM)
Practical relief efforts through emigration were also examined. It
was learned that upon the initiative of the Cypriot government, a
selective migration program to Latin America was established for
Cypriots desiring to emigrate to that area.
. This was accomplished through the cooperation of the Intergovern-
mental Committee for European Migration (ICEM), an international
migration and refugee organization active in a number of emergency
refugee situations over the past twenty years, which was initially
established to assist the large number of displaced and distressed
persons in Western Europe after World War II. Since that time, its
programs functions and activities have been revised periodically to
meet emergent refugee problems which have arisen around the world.
In November 1975, an official of the Ministry of Interior of the
Government of Cyprus was placed at the disposal of ICEM to recruit
eligible and qualified applicants for this program which is designed to
place, transport, and assist in the resettlement of Cypriot nationals.
Experience has shown that the selective migration program to Latin
America has proved extremely difficult to attract qualified applicants.
Thus far. sixty applications representing 149 persons had been re-
ceived. Of these, five Cypriots were moved to Argentina and ten cases
are presently pending approval for Brazil.
Although a tentative allocation of $200,000 had been included in
U.S. Aid Funds administered through the United States Embassy,
the Government of Cyprus did not approve the use of these funds for
this purpose. Consequently, there are currently no United States funds
involved in this migration program. However, it is anticipated that in
the near future the Government of Cyprus will make available $200,-
000 to ICEM for a loan program to assist Cypriot emigration.
Canada and Australia have ongoing emigration programs in Cyprus
(in which ICEM is participating) and an expansion of the Australia
program is expected in the near future.
Jvecently the Cyprus Government has officially requested ICEM to
; in the resettlement of some 6,000 refugees from Lebanon for
which the Government is now providing some care and maintenance.
Emigration relief, although relatively minor when considering the
overall Cypriot problem, can possibly be of greater benefit to the gov-
ernment in the future.
. In addition to interviewing the ICEM representative in Cyprus,
Representative Eilberg and the subcommittee staff also discussed the
subject with U.S. embassy officials and representatives of the ICEM
Mission in Athens which has overall supervision of the Cyprus emi-
1 ° in
Relief Efforts — Government of Cyprus
In addition to the aforementioned efforts by the international com-
munity, the Government of Cyprus itself also made diligent efforts to
respond to the crisis. Responsibility for all relief matters. was assigned
ially-deeignated Director of al Services for Care and
dilution of Refugees in August of 1974. Following the initial
emergency phase, the relief efforts of the Government of Cyprus were
Juated early in L975 and emphasis was then placed on employment
tance and improvement of conditions at the refugee camps.
In order to obtain an overview of the relief activities undertaken by
the Government of Cyprus, meetings were held with representatives
of the Ministries of Labor and Foreign Affairs of the Government of
Mr. Achilles Kalimachos, the Acting Director of Special Services
for Care and Rehabilitation of Refugees, indicated in November 1975
that a major effort was under way to build permanent housing for
displaced Greek Cypriots. Since the proposed housing was not prefab-
ricated, substantial manpower would be required to construct these
homes; thereby alleviating to some extent the severe unemployment
problem in the south.
Mr. Kalimachos indicated that his office employed some 200 persons
who are working on various programs to provide shelter and food for
the displaced Greek Cypriots. In addition to these programs his office
was also responsible for developing and funding agricultural programs
and reforestation projects, and for accomplishing in the various refu-
gee camps and centers handicraft and cottage industries including em-
broidery, weaving, woodcarving, leather, pottery and sewing. One of
the most serious problems cited by Mr. Kalimachos was the lack of
educational materials and school supplies for those children housed in
temporary facilities. However, the primary problem confronting the
Government of Cyprus in planning and developing adequate relief
programs is the political uncertainty surrounding the Cyprus situation.
This same uncertainty as well as the lengthy stay of some individ-
uals in temporary tent camps has also had a most serious effect on the
morale of many of the displaced Greek Cypriots, virtually all of whom
have expressed the hope that they would one day be able to return to
their homes in the North.
While past programs have involved the provision of food, clothing,
medical care, and educational services, new projects have been under-
taken by the Government of Cyprus to create employment opportuni-
ties and to bolster the Cypriot economy.
U.S. Relief Efforts
Most assistance which has been provided by foreign countries to
distressed and displaced persons in Cyprus has been channeled through
the various international relief agencies such as the UNHCR and
ICRC. The U.S. government has also followed this general policy
and has avoided any bilateral assistance.
A provision contained in the "Foreign Assistance Act of 1974" made
available $25 million of Famine or Disaster Relief Assistance funds
for displaced persons in Cyprus. This entire sum was allocated
through the international agencies as follows: $-j!().S million to the
ITXHCR in response to his appeals to the international community,
and $4.2 more to the ICRC. These funds along with about S; ; :> million
contributed by other governments and private sources were intended
to finance relief activities through early 1976. According to a report
entitled "Disaster Relief — Cyprus Civil Strife,*' issued l\y the Agency
for International Development these U.S. funds were committed as
Cash grants to ICRC $ 1,725,000
Aid-in-kind consigned to ICRC 3, 493, 600
Total through ICRC 4, 218. 600
In support of the UNS YG's appeal for 1974 needs :
Cash grants 7, 400, 000
Aid-in-kind — 5,600 tent flys (including air trans-
port) .T- 400, 000
In support of appeal for first four months of 1975 :
One-third of total $9.3 million appeal 3,100,000
In support of continuing 1975 relief needs 9,872,105
Other various support costs 9. 295
Total through UNHCR 20, 781, 400
Total U.S. Government Assistance 25, 000, 000
In addition to the forms of relief described above, the U.S. contribu-
tions to the UNHCR also helped to finance a refugee feeding pro-
gram, some low cost housing for refugees, as well as reforestation and
various small refugee welfare projects. The U.S. assistance channeled
through ICRC was expended for emergency relief commodities and
to enable ICRC to perform its various functions as the instrument of
the Geneva Convention (i.e. protecting prisoners of war, tracing
On June 30, 1976, Congress authorized $30 million "for the relief
and rehabilitation of refugees and other needy people in Cyprus"
(P.L. 94-161. section 495). With the enactment of Public Law 94-329
(section 402). this authorization was increased from $30 million to $40
million. These funds will be used in order to provide project assistance
through the UNHCR in the amount of approximately $21 million
and the remainder will be used to provide: administrative budget
port and food in the North (UNHCR); humanitarian program
support (UXFICYIM : project development support (U.S. Em-
bassy) : and reforestation equipment in the South.
In short, the Congress and the US. government have responded
generously to the humanitarian problems in Cyprus. Unfortunately,
participation by other members <>f the international community
decreased after the initial emergency period. Many countries, after
reviewing the circumstances surrounding tlie Second Phase Assist-
ance period (beginning in June lf>7r>) substantially reduced the
amount of their cont ributi
A. UXIICR's ROLE IX CYPRUS
At the request of the U.N. Secretary General, as well as the Gov-
ernment of Cyprus, and the Turkish authorities, the UNHCR has
continued its humanitarian work in Cyprus.
It must be recognized that the UNHCR's efforts are beyond the
scope of its mandate and these activities are now funded to a large
degree by the United States Government.
There is serious concern on the part of many individuals that a
"Palestinian refugee situation" is developing in Cyprus, and every
effort should be made to prevent such an occurrence.
If it is determined that long-term care and maintenance programs
or rehabilitation projects are required, the U.N. should consider re-
questing another international entity to assume those duties now being
carried out by the UNHCR.
In this regard, the current policy of "internationalizing" assistance
should be maintained and bilateral programs, particularly insofar as
the United States is concerned, should be avoided. It is conceivable
that direct bilateral assistance could increase tension between the
Turkish administration and the Cypriot government; thereby creat-
ing an additional obstacle to a final political solution to the Cyprus
Recognizing that negotiations are currently deadlocked and that
the UNHCR is normally involved (under its traditional mandate)
with short-term, emergency relief programs, the international com-
munity, with the assistance and cooperation of the Cypriot govern-
ment and the Turkish authorities, must develop an alternative method
for channeling international assistance to Cyprus.
Whatever procedures are eventually developed, it is clear that relief
assistance must continue to be distributed primarily on the basis of
need and those programs which are established must be continuously
reevaluated to reflect the changing needs and circumstances of the
B. GREEK CYPRIOTS IX TURKISII-COXTROLLED AREA
Life has been extremely difficult for those Greek Cypriots who
did not flee or who were not evacuated to the Government-controlled
area in Southern Cyprus after the Turkish invasion.
In the two years since the invasion numerous cases have been re-
ported involving harassment, intimidation, deprivation of educational
and medical services, restrictions on movement, and confinement to
There has also been severe criticism by Cypriot Government officials
that the international relief agencies do not enjoy "free and unim-
peded" access to Greek Cypriots living in the North.
UNHCK and ICRC officials denied that any ''access" problems
exist, but they did indicate that claims relating to the education of
Greek Cypriot children in the North and access to ethnic Greek medi-
cal doctors were being carefully reviewed.
Officials of the Cypriot Government referred to the provisions con-
tained in the Vienna Agreement of August 2. 1975, which assured
Greek Cypriote in the North that they would be given assistance in
leading "a normal life, including facilities for education and for the
practice of their religion as well as medical care by their own doctors
and freedom of movement in the north".
Specifically. Mr. George Pelaghias. Director General of the Ministry
of Foreign AfFairs stated that the Vienna Agreement was not being
property implemented and in view of the difficult conditions con-
fronting Greek Cypriots in the North, he predicted last November
that additional persons would be forced to relocate in the South. Since
that time, some 2000 Greek Cypriots were expelled or have departed
from the Turkish-occupied area.
As a result, only about 8.000 currently reside in the North and it is
essential that the Turkish authorities carry out their obligations under
the Vienna Agreement, In addition, UNFICYP personnel must be
given '-free and normal access to Greek Cypriot villages and habita-
tions in the north", as promised in that agreement.
C. COLONIZATION AND TURKISH TROOPS
Two of the most sensitive and troublesome issues discussed during
each of the field trips were: the influx of mainland Turks to, and the
continued presence of several thousand Turkish troops in, the Turkish-
occupied zone in northern Cyprus.
Estimates as to the number of mainland Turks who have entered
the island since the 1974 conflict have varied considerably. Independent
sources indicated that between 10.000 and 15,000 Turks had immi-
grated to Cyprus by the end of 1075, but it was unclear whether they
were temporary workers or permanent immigrants.
Officials of the Turkish authorities maintained that the importation
of mainland Turks was necessary in order to cultivate and harvest the
fields and to reactivate the economy in the North. Tn essence, they
were characterized as temporary laborers, who were needed to nor-
malize conditions in the North and to reduce the dependency on im-
ported products, particularly food supplies.
Cypriot Government officials, on the other hand, sharplv criticized
the immigration of mainland Turks as an attempt by the Turkish
tration: (^) to colonize the North: and (2) to en-
ir negotiating positions by changing the population rntio on
t '•" T iland.
The continued presence of Turkish military forces on Cvprus has
bIso I ruptive consequences on relations between the two sides.
The 'i authorities maintained O^.^t such troop* were essential
in insurinor the safety and security of t))o Turkish Cypriot popula-
tion. The Greek Oypriot coirimunity firmly believes there is absolutely
no justification for these troops to remain on tlm Island a^d thev cite
for upporl the U.N. resolution which was adopted by tin- General Is-
sembly on November 20, 1975 by a vote of 117-1 (with 9 abstentions)
demanding "the withdrawal without further delay of all foreign
armed forces and foreign military presence and personnel from the
Eepublic of Cyprus."
It is evident that the problems of immigration and Turkish mili-
tary forces in the North have increased intercommunal tension and
according to one official of the Cyprus Government they will be a
definite ''irritant" in any future negotiations. Moreover, these issues
have seriously concerned the U.S. Congress and provisions concerning
this subject were contained in the recently-enacted "International Se-
curity Assistance and Arms Export Control Act of 1976." (P.L.
Section 403 of that Act specifically relates aid to Turkey to the size
of Turkey's "military forces" and "civilian population on Cyprus."
It is clear that the Congress is strongly opposed to any actions by
the Government of Turkey which would increase its military strength
or expand its control in Cyprus. At the same time, many members of
the Turkish- Cypriot community advised the study group that they
feel secure under the existing situation and would vigorously resist
any reduction in the civilian or military population in the North.
There are, however, some indications that cultural differences be-
tween the Turkish Cypriots and the mainland Turks in Cyprus could
become a problem in the future.
Report of Hon. Robert McClort, on Condition of Refugees in
My recent visit to Cyprus as a Member of the House Judiciary
Committee served to fulfill a responsibility for refugees, which is an
important part of the work of this committee. My brief stay in Cyprus
(May 18-20) was preceded by numerous conferences in Washington
with Garner J. Cline, Staff Director of the House Judiciary Com-
mittee and Counsel for the Immigration Subcommittee, Lowell
Laingen, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State, James Morton of the
State Department's Cyprus Desk, and others.
Many Greek Americans and several Greek C} T priot Americans have
discussed the Cyprus problem (and our relations with Turkey) with
me, including Dr. Nikos Panacos, President of the ^Vaukegnn, Illinois,
Chapter of AHEPA, and Dr. Christopher Costis, Past President of
the Illinois Chapter of the Congress of American-Hellenic
I had planned to accompany my Colleague, Congressman Joshua
Eilberg of Pennsylvania, Chairman of the Immigration Subcom-
mii toe. and Garner Cline. committee counsel to the regular meeting
of the Intergovernmental Committee on European Migration (TCEM)
in Geneva. Switzerland, on May 0-10, and then proceed to Cyprus.
Other Committee work delayed my departure.
Following Chairman Eilberg by about one week. I conferred first in
Geneva with John Thomos, Director of ICEM, regarding that orga-
nization's involvement in the Cvpriot refugee problems and was briefed
on the activities of the U.N. High Commissioner on Refugee and the
services of the International Red Cross. Apart from the limited relief
work performed in the Fall of 1974. ICEM's Cyprus role has been
quite limited, principally because the President of Cyprus. Archbishop
Makarios, refuses to acknowledge that the some 200.000 Greek Cypriots
who fled or who were driven from Turkish-occupied Cyprus were
refugees. Makarios takes the formal position that the Greek Cypriots
are temporarily displaced persons waiting to return to their communi-
ties which are being occupied illegally bv the Turkish military forces.
Thomas lauded the humanitarian relief work being performed in
Cyprus by the U.N.. including service to both Greek and Turkish
Cypriots. His comments were confirmed by my later on-the-scene ob-
(a) U.N. relief and refugee assistance.
(b) U.N. peacekeeping activities separating the two warring
parties alone a cease-fire line extending across the island, and
(c) The U.N. mediation or peace negotiation role.
Later, in Nicosia, I met and discussed in some detail the U.N. activi-
ties in Cyprus with the chief ILN. spokesman. George Yacoub. Also, I
observed the U.N. peacekeeping forces from Finland, Sweden, Canada,
and elsewhere, as well as their bases. On the road from Nicosia to Ky-
renia. the armed Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot forces are sep-
arated by less than 100 yards. But in between these armed enemies, the
T T .N. personnel stand guard, respected by both sides, and maintaining
a fragile, but increasingly durable, peace.
I cannot help but express the highest praise for the multiple activi-
ties of the United Nations in Cyprus. Tts activities provide the greatest
assurances that acceptable solutions to the "Cyprus problem'' will be
My escort officer throughout my Cypriot visit was Bruno Koshelcff,
the Economic and Commercial Officer at the U.S. Embassy in Nicosia,
a most knowledgeable and objective expert on the complex "Cyprus
My principal interest being the refugee situation. T had occasion to
visit a number of refugee camps in the areas of Larnaca, Nicosia, and
Dhekelia (the British Sovereign Military Base). "While there are re-
ported to have been some 200,000 Greek Cypriot refugees following
the landing in July, 1974, of some 40,000 troops from Turkey, most of
the Greek Cypriot refugees who were cared for previously in refugee
(iimps have now been relocated in permanent homes. The fighting,
looting, killing, and property damage in extensive areas of Cyprus
have left serious sears from which the Cypriots will be able to recover
only witli '/real difficulty and the passage of many years.
I observed at least two large refugee camps which had been aban-
doned, one of which is near Larnaca and trie other in the Dhekelia
area. Only the electrical wires, toilet facilities and other remnants of
large tent camps remained. Other camps, including the tent camp near
Akhna. have been greatly reduced in size as refugees find more perma-
nent lodging and employment in other parts of the Greek portion of
'The Large housing project at Axadhippou while not yet completed
affords permanent homes for several thousand displaced Greek Cyp-
re accommodated previously in tent-. This project was ti-
nanced primarily with U.S. AID funds administered through the
United Nations. The development was executed by private Cypriot
contractors, materialmen and building tradesmen.
The large housing development in Nicosia, described as the Strovolos
project B (on which Pefkios Georgiades was one of the architects),
will provide atractive townhouse-type homes for some 6,000 Greek
Cypriots. These appear to be well-designed, solidly built structures,
consistent with the tradition of sound construction practices which
prevail throughout the island.
While there are an estimated 50,000 Turkish Cypriots who have
moved from the South to the Northern Turkish-occupied part of
Cyprus, there do not appear to be any Turkish Cypriot refugee camps.
Instead, the Turkish Cypriots are occupying dwellings abandoned by
Greek Cypriots, there being far more such abandoned dwellings than
there are Turkish Cypriots to occupy them.
My general observation is that the Greek Cypriots are adjusting
rapidly to their new environment. Their new homes, although small,
are well constructed of masonry and concrete. A large building block
plant has been established in the Dhekelia area to accommodate the
new home construction. The Greek Cypriots, including refugees, are,
for the most part, more resourceful, industrious, and more skillful
than their Turkish counterparts. They have laid concrete floors even
in the tent camps. Their places are neat, clean and orderly.
However, when I stopped to visit with some of the Greek Cypriot
refugees, and asked what they wished particularly to impart to me,
as a Representative in the United States Congress, their uniform
response was, "We want to return to our homes in the North."
The refugee camp at Akhna presents a disheartening picture. Re-
duced substantially in size from its maximum estimated population
of 6000 homeless Greek Cypriots, some 1200 former residents of Akhna
now reside in a tent village within sight of their unoccupied homes to
which they cannot return because of the armed Turkish soldiers who
have set up their line in the village. Most of these refugees are farmers,
many of whom escaped with their large farm tractors and other mech-
anized farm equipment. They have been waiting almost two years for
the Turkish soldiers to retire. One farmer told me that 5 acres of his
40-acre farm lie on the Greek side of the cease-fire line. The rest is in
the Turkish zone. He would be fired on even if he tried to work the
5-acre portion. So, he and several hundred other families wait and
hope, perhaps in vain, to return to their homes.
The unlikely return of Akhna to Greek Cypriot jurisdiction is based
on the circumstance that the community lies on the border of the Bri-
tish Sovereign Base of Dhekelia. The Turkish forces believe, with
some possible justification, that the British may abandon their claims
to Dhekelia in the near future, at which time (if the Turks continue to
occupy the adjoining territory) they will simply move in and take
over this 10 square mile area.
In the course of my visit to the Turkish-occupied area including
Kyrenia (renamed Gire by the Turks) and Lapithos, it appeared that
the Turkish Cypriots were far less capable of improving or main-
taining the properties taken over from the Greek Cypriots. Instead
of new construction, which characterizes the Greek-held area?, the
buildings including most private dwellings in the Turkish-held zone
appear to be neglected and in a state of deterioration.
The fruit in the large citrus groves is rotting on the trees. Farm
properties seem generally to be abandoned. Hotel and other business
properties are in partial or total disuse.
However, Bruno Kosheleff and I stopped to visit with a group of
Turkish Cypriots in Laithos, and after the usual ceremonial and
genuinely hospitable cup of Turkish coffee, one of the group, an ele-
mentary school teacher, invited us to visit his home, While our visit
took the teachers wife and three children by surprise, we were most
impressed with the order and comfort which characterized this two-
story, three-bedroom masonry residence which belonged previously
(and may still belong) to a Greek Cypriot family. The teacher was
quite fluent in English, as typically amiable and hospitable as all Cyp-
riots appear to be, and very forthright. He explained that the Turkish
Government had assigned the home to him, that he paid no rent, and
that the interior furnishings belonged to him and his family. He drove
a medium-size modern automobile that was parked alongside his home.
The rest of the dwellings in the area seemed almost uninhabitable.
Turkish Cypriots are just beginning to be moved into the dwellings
vacated by the Greek Cypriots who formerly occupied them. But. in
contrast to the active building and improvement programs which I
witnessed in the Greek zone, there was no improvement program
underway in the few Turkish communities I visited.
PROSPECTS FOR MEANINGFUL PEACE NEGOTIATIONS
In commenting upon the prospects of a durable peace in Cyprus
through negotiations, T should emphasize that T am not trying to as-
sume prerogatives that belong rightfully to our State Department and
our diplomatic personnel, including onr capable and knowledgeable
Ambassador William R. Crawford, Jr., with whom I conferred at
length in Nicosia.
]\ T or do I wish to attribute any of my observations to specific named
individuals with whom I conferred in Washington, Geneva, Athens
The most negative, and at the same time the most prevalent, view
advanced is that there will be no peace negotiations in the foreseeable
future: that both Makarios and the Turks are satisfied with the status
quo: that a settlement would diminish Makarios' authority and p
tige: thai the Turks will never relinquish the advantage they have
gained for the first time after centuries of subservience to a Greek
( lypriot majority.
Another negative view advanced from the Turkish side was that
there can be no peace negotiations until M:ik.'irios is out. Since Arch-
bishop ICakariofl appears to he solidly "in" as President of the Govern-
ment of Cvprus, to suggest postponement of talks until Makarios is
out, is tantamount to rejecting all peace negotiations.
The principal obstacle to meaningful negotiations is the absence of
authoritative spokesmen for the two rides; Neither the Greek Cypriot
Chief Negotiator, Tassos Papadopoulos, nor the Turkish Cypriot
Chief Negotiator^ Umit Suleyman Oran, have any real authority to act
for their respective sides. The only person capable of speaking for the
Greek Cypriot Government is Archbishop Makarios. The Turkish
military command appears to be the responsible spokesman for the
Turkish Cypriot side. The Secretary General of the United Nations,
Kurt TValdheim, is the acknowledged mediator. However, in response
to my inquiry, it was suggested that a representative of the West Ger-
man Government, presumably that nation's Foreign Minister, might
be acceptable to both sides as the mediator.
The Greek Cypriot leaders are reluctant to propose terms for a set-
tlement. They contend that they have nothing to give, that all of the
cards are in the hands of the Turks. However, there are definite indi-
cations that the Greek Cypriot Government is prepared to accede to a
permanent division of the Island into Turkish Cypriot and Greek
Cypriot zones, a bi-zonal federation, with most powers vested in the
two relatively autonomous states.
Territorial adjustments, which would include the return of some
communities now under Turkish control to the Greek Cypriot side,
would seem to be an important element in any peace discussions.
In short, it would appear to me that pressure should be applied to
both sides to encourage resumption of negotiations with the U.N. Sec-
retary General, or other acceptable person, as mediator, and predicated
only on the assurance that both sides would be prepared to submit
specific proposals for settlement, upon which continuing discussions
and an ultimate agreement might be based.
The Greek Cypriot officials, to a man, contend that an unequivocal
ban on future military and economic aid to Turkey is the kind of pres-
sure needed to bring the Turkish authorities to the negotiating table.
The Turkish side argues with equal force that the Cyprus question
must be dealt with independently of the questions of U.S. military and
economic aid programs.
It must certainly be recognized that pressures to settle the Cyprus
problem should be applied by other countries than the United States,
especially our other NATO allies, as well as the governments of the
Middle East. The defense capacity of NATO and the protection of
the Mediterranean by the U.S. 6th Fleet require the continued cooper-
ation of the United States, Greece and Turkey. The Cypriot tinder box
must not be permitted to embroil us in a major conflagration.
As a supplement to this statement, I am attaching hereto as an ap-
pendix the following: (a) cable from Ambassador "Crawford to Sec-
retary of State Kissinger relative to my Cyprus visit, and (b) letter
from Bruno Kosheleff providing chronology of my Cyprus visit.
CABLE FROM AMBASSADOR CRAWFORD TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE
1. Congressman McClory arrived May 18 at 1400 and left May 20 at 1000 lor
return to Washington via Athens and New York.
2. Embassy Economic/Commercial Officer met Codel at airport, took visitor to
following places directly from airport : Aradhippou Housing Development for dis-
placed Greek Cypriots (project was partially financed by USG aid program) ;
Dhekelia Sovereign Base Area (SBA) U.K. Forces facilities; Akhna Forest with-
in SBA where approx. 1,200 displaced Greek Cypriots are living In tents as well
as permanent structures erected by the occupants; Town of Xylotymbou (GOC
enclave within SBA) where approx. 4,000 displaced Greek Cypriots live: view
from within SBA of Turkish Army-controlled town of Akhna ; Town of Ormidhia
(GOC enclave within SBA) where approx. 6,000 displaced Greek Cypriots re-
side: Ammo Dump Refugee Camp inhabited by approx. 1,400 Greek Cypriot
refugees living mainly in GOC-furnished "match-box" homes and a few tents:
Town of Larnaca including visit of former Turkish Cypriot quarter. Codel
made two stops to discuss general Cyprus topics with Greek Cypriot refugees,
including at Akhna Forest where he spoke with group of nine farmers and at
Xylotymbou where he interviewed Greek Cypriot housewife formerly of Lysi
village. In Larnaca, Codel visited Turkish mosque presently being repaired by
3. Evening dinner by Ambassador provided opportunity for Codel to meet
and exchange views with Tassos Papadopulos, Speaker of House of Representa-
tives and Greek Cypriot negotiator, and Minister of Labor Markos Spanos whose
Ministry runs the Special Services for Refugees.
4. May 19 Codel was taken on tour of UNFICYP headquarters, RAF Nicosia
compound, and Nicosia International Airport. Codel had personal tour of re-
cently opened First Cyprus International (Trade) Fair, then was taken to
Presidential Palace destroyed during coup d'etat in July 1974. Codel spent
half hour at Strovolos Refugee Camp where he interviewed several displaced
persons and visited camp's kindergarten facilities. Codel then proceeded to
site of Strovolos Housing Development presently under construction. Facilities
will house Strovolos refugees by December this year. Project expected to be
mostly financed from USG aid funds.
5. After morning tour Congressman McClory accompanied by Ambassador
called in succession on Turkish Cypriot Negotiator Onan, President Makarios
and Foreign Minister. Key points of these conversations by septel.
0. Codel lunched with Ambassador for briefing. Afternoon spent in Turkish
North of Cyprus. Codel visited Kyrenia, Ambelia (overlooking Bellapais).
viewed site of Turkish landings in summer 1974 and was shown T T SG radio sta-
tion (closed) at Karavas. Codel visited Lapithos village where he interviewed
several Turkish Cypriots formerly from Paphos District. At CODEL request
Embassy escort took Codel to visit Greek Orthodox Church at Lapithos
7. May 20. On way to Larnaca for departure Codel was taken to Menoyia
village where GOC public works laborers were clearing rubble from homes for-
merly occupied by Turk Cypriots who in 1974 fled to Turkish-controlled North.
Menoyia is being repaired for occupancy by Greek Cypriot refugees.
ft. Congressman McClory did not meet with local press, made no public
Embassy or ttie
United States or America,
Nicosia, Cyprus, May 21, 1970.
Hon. Rorkrt McClOBT,
House Committee on .Judiciary,
U.8. House of R> -prexentntirrx, Washington, B.C.
I>iak OOFWHMMAIV M< (Tory: It was my very real pleasure to Beit you
and escort you during your brief s( ay in Cyprus. I cannot but feel that it was
a memorable visit for you- -Cyprus is nothing if not interesting.
Bnclosed is a copy of the Embassy telegram sent to the Department regarding
your visit. The cable oncapsules the highlights of your tour of the island. As
JTOIl requested I am listing tin- various places you visited in Chronological order:
a few commenta are also Includi <i :
tarnaca Airport (arrival in Cyprus).
Aradhippou Housing development. Larnaca IMstrict, occupied by approx.
6.000 displaced Greek cypriots in 1,052 units. Project partly financed from
[TfJO .I'd pn.-ram. OerupantH previously lived In tents and other unsatisfactory
Dhekelia Sovereign Rase Area fMA), toward various British forces facilities.
Xylotymbou refugee DSSBpS, both within Town of Xylotyml>ou (Government of
Cyprus enclave within the BBA) and on SBA territory. Visited new home of
Greek Cypriot family formerly from Lysi Village (now in Turkish-controlled
North). Housewife explained they financed and constructed their own house
without Government or other outside assistance.
The family receives monthly cash and food allowances, was also given blankets
and a heater by the Government. Husband is a house painter, regularly em-
ployed. Turkish coffee was served.
Akhna Forest, within the SBA, where approx. 1,200 displaced Greek Cypriots
are living in tents but also increasingly both in solid structure homes, self-
financed by the occupants, and in prefabricated temporary structures financed
and provided by the Government. Coffee-house chat with nine displaced farmers
formerly from Akhna Town.
Viewed from within the SBA the Town of Akhna which is now under Turkish
control. Akhna used to have a Greek Cypriot population of approx. 2,000. The
town has not been resettled but is under occupation by the Turkish Army.
Ormedhia Refugee Camps and the Town of Ormedhia (Government of
Cyprus enclave within the SBA). Ormedhia's population jumped three-fold in
August-September 1974 as Greek Cypriots from Famagusta District sought
safety within the SBA. Most of the tent camps in Ormedhia have been disbanded
although the refugee camp overlooking the Town, situated on the hill known
as the "Ammo Dump," contains approx. 1.400 displaced persons. More and more
of the inhabitants are constructing solid-structure homes or erecting Govern-
ment-provided prefab temporary structures.
Larnaca Town, including a drive through the Turkish Quarter where for-
merly approx. 3,500 Turkish Cypriots lived. The Quarter is now inhabited by
approx. 3.000 Greek Cypriots, most of whom were displaced from the North in
1974. Visited the Moslem mosque on the edge of the Turkish Quarters; the
mosque was undergoing repairs to the damage caused in 1974.
Dinner at the Ambassador's Residence (for list of attendees, see schedule
prepared for CODEL visit).
Tour of Nicosia including Presidential Palace destroyed in coup d'etat of
July 1974; U.N. Forces (UNFICYP) Headquarters and R.A.F. Nicosia Station;
Nicosia International Airport (under UNFICYP control), closed since summer
First International Cyprus State Fair which opened May 14. Viewed several
pavilions and extensive exhibit of locally-assembled KMC-trademark trucks
Tour of Strovolos Refugee Camp, chat with several occupants as well as
interview with Government Camp Administrator; visited camp's kindergarten
facilities where children sang a "return to our homes" song.
Drove around construction site of Strovolos Housing Development on outskirts
of Nicosia. The complex, when completed later this year, will house the Strovolos
Camp families. The complex, which will have 710 individuals apartments, will
for the most be paid for by USG aid funds.
Meeting with Turkish Cypriots negotiator Umit Suleyman Onan, accompanied
Meeting with His Beatitude Archbishop Makarios, President of the Republic
of Cyprus, with Ambassador.
Meeting with Government of Cyprus Foreign Minister Christophides, accom-
panied by Ambassador.
Drive around Turkish part of Nicosia in the Old City.
Drive around Kyrenia including the port area.
Viewed Bellapais Village from Ambelia.
Drive to the beach site of the Turkish military landings in summer 1!>74 ;
drove by the U.S. radio station (closed) at Karavas.
Drove around former Greek Cypriot village of Lapithos, visited the Greek
Orthodox Church (doors wide open, insides in disarray). Stopped at coffee
house, discussed Cyprus problem with Turkish Cypriots who had moved to
Lapithos since troubles of 1974. Interviewed a Turk Cypriot formerly from
Kouklia (a mixed village in the Paphos District) and a Turk Cypriot primary
school teacher recently assigned to teach at the Lapithos school. The teacher
invited the visitors to his home where we were served a delicious sweetened
Return to Kyrenia to meet artist — restaurantor S. Mustafa.
Meze dinner in Nicosia with Embassy control officer and his wife.
On the way to Larnaca, stopped at Menoyia Village which up to 1963 had been
a mixed village, from 1963-1974 a Turkish village — deserted from summer of
1 ( j74 to the present. A Public Works crew was clearing the village of rubble, in
preparation for repair of the village for resettlement of Greek Cypriots displaced
from the North.
Larnaca Airport (departure for return to Washington via Athens and New
Bruno Kosheleff, Economic/ Commercial Officer.
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
i urn mil i
3 1262 09114 1324